Call for Papers—Special Issue on Demanding Maritime Operation
This study investigates the resistance of a transport ship navigating in level ice by conducting a series of model tests in an ice tank at Tianjin University. The laboratory-scale model ship was mounted on a rigid carriage using a one-directional load cell and then towed through an ice sheet at different speeds. We observed the ice-breaking process at different parts of the ship and motion of the ice floes and measured the resistances under different speeds to determine the relationship between the ice-breaking process and ice resistance. The bending failure at the shoulder area was found to cause maximum resistance. Furthermore, we introduced the analytical method of Lindqvist (1989) for estimating ice resistance and then compared these calculated results with those from our model tests. The results indicate that the calculated total resistances are higher than those we determined in the model tests.
The interaction of oblique incident water waves with a small bottom deformation on a porous ocean-bed is examined analytically here within the framework of linear water wave theory. The upper surface of the ocean is assumed to be covered by an infinitely extended thin uniform elastic plate, while the lower surface is bounded by a porous bottom surface having a small deformation. By employing a simplified perturbation analysis, involving a small parameter δ(<<1), which measures the smallness of the deformation, the governing Boundary Value Problem (BVP) is reduced to a simpler BVP for the first-order correction of the potential function. This BVP is solved using a method based on Green’s integral theorem with the introduction of suitable Green’s function to obtain the first-order potential, and this potential function is then utilized to calculate the first-order reflection and transmission coefficients in terms of integrals involving the shape function c(x) representing the bottom deformation. Consideration of a patch of sinusoidal ripples shows that when the quotient of twice the component of the incident field wave number propagating just below the elastic plate and the ripple wave number approaches one, the theory predicts a resonant interaction between the bed and the surface below the elastic plate. Again, for small angles of incidence, the reflected wave energy is more as compared to the other angles of incidence. It is also observed that the reflected wave energy is somewhat sensitive to the changes in the flexural rigidity of the elastic plate, the porosity of the bed and the ripple wave numbers. The main advantage of the present study is that the results for the values of reflection and transmission coefficients obtained are found to satisfy the energy-balance relation almost accurately.
This study examines the hydrodynamic performance of multiple-row vertical slotted breakwaters. We developed a mathematical model based on an eigenfunction expansion method and a least squares technique for Stokes second-order waves. The numerical results obtained for limiting cases of double-row and triple-row walls are in good agreement with results of previous studies and experimental results. Comparisons with experimental measurements of the reflection, transmission, and dissipation coefficients (CR, CT, and CE) for double-row walls show that the proposed mathematical model adequately reproduces most of the important features. We found that for double-row walls, the CR increases with increasing wave number, kd, and with a decreasing permeable wall part, dm. The CT follows the opposite trend. The CE slowly increases with an increasing kd for lower kd values, reaches a maximum, and then decreases again. In addition, an increasing porosity of dm would significantly decrease the CR, while increasing the CT. At lower values of kd, a decreasing porosity increases the CE, but for high values of kd, a decreasing porosity reduces the CE. The numerical results indicate that, for triple-row walls, the effect of the arrangement of the chamber widths on hydrodynamic characteristics is not significant, except when kd<0.5. Double-row slotted breakwaters may exhibit a good wave-absorbing performance at kd >0.5, where by the horizontal wave force may be smaller than that of a single wall. On the other hand, the difference between double-row and triple-row vertical slotted breakwaters is marginal.
Aircraft flying close to the ground benefit from enhanced efficiency owing to decreased induced drag and increased lift. In this study, a mathematical model is developed to simulate the takeoff of a wing near the ground using an Iterative Boundary Element Method (IBEM) and the finite difference scheme. Two stand-alone sub-codes and a mother code, which enables communication between the sub-codes, are developed to solve for the self-excitation of the Wing-In-Ground (WIG) effect. The aerodynamic force exerted on the wing is calculated by the first sub-code using the IBEM, and the vertical displacement of the wing is calculated by the second sub-code using the finite difference scheme. The mother code commands the two sub-codes and can solve for the aerodynamics of the wing and operating height within seconds. The developed code system is used to solve for the force, velocity, and displacement of an NACA6409 wing at a ° Angle of Attack (AoA) which has various numerical and experimental studies in the literature. The effects of thickness and AoA are then investigated and conclusions were drawn with respect to generated results. The proposed model provides a practical method for understanding the flight dynamics and it is specifically beneficial at the pre-design stages of a WIG effect craft.
This study discusses the analysis of various modeling approaches such as genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and evidential reasoning, and maintenance techniques applicable to the liquefied natural gas (LNG) carrier operations in the maritime environment. The usefulness of these algorithms in the LNG carrier industry in the areas of risk assessment and maintenance modeling as a standalone or hybrid algorithm are identified. This is evidenced with illustrative case studies.
Air separators provide safe, clean, and appropriate air flow to engines and are widely used in vehicles with large engines such as ships and submarines. In this operational study, the separation process in a Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube cleaning (cooling) system is investigated to analyze the impact of the operating gas type on the vortex tube performance; the operating gases used are air, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen dioxide. The computational fluid dynamic model used is equipped with a three-dimensional structure, and the steady-state condition is applied during computations. The standard k–ε turbulence model is employed to resolve nonlinear flow equations, and various key parameters, such as hot and cold exhaust thermal drops, and power separation rates, are described numerically. The results show that nitrogen dioxide creates the greatest separation power out of all gases tested, and the numerical results are validated by good agreement with available experimental data. In addition, a comparison is made between the use of two different boundary conditions, the pressure-far-field and the pressure-outlet, when analyzing complex turbulent flows in the air separators. Results present a comprehensive and practical solution for use in future numerical studies.
In this study, the coupled heave-pitch motion equations of a spar platform were established by considering 1st-order and 2nd-order random wave loads and the effects of time-varying displacement volume and transient wave elevation. We generated random wave loads based on frequency-domain wave load transfer functions and the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) wave spectrum, designed program codes to solve the motion equations, and then simulated the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform in the time domain. We then calculated and compared the motion responses in different sea conditions and separately investigated the effects of 2nd-order random wave loads and transient wave elevation. The results show that the coupled heave-pitch motion responses of the platform are primarily dominated by wave height and the characteristic wave period, the latter of which has a greater impact. 2nd-order mean wave loads mainly affect the average heave value. The platform’s pitch increases after the 2nd-order low frequency wave loads are taken into account. The platform’s heave is underestimated if the transient wave elevation term in the motion equations is neglected.
Tendons vertically moor Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs), thus, a deep understanding of physical tendon stresses requires the determination of the total axial deformation of the tendons, which is a combination of the heave, pitch, and surging responses. The vertical motion of the lateral sides of the TLP is coupled with surge and constitutes a portion of the pitch motion. Tendons are connected to the sides of the TLP; hence, the total displacement of the lateral sides is related to the total deformation of the tendons and the total axial stress. Therefore, investigating the total vertical response at the sides of the TLP is essential. The coupling between various degrees of freedom is not considered in the Response Amplitude Operator (RAO). Therefore, in frequency domain analysis, the estimated vertical RAO is incomplete. Also, in the time domain, only the heave motion at the center of TLP is typically studied; this problem needs to be addressed. In this paper, we investigate the portion of the pitch motion in the vertical response at the sides of the TLP in both the frequency and time domains. Numerical results demonstrate a significant effect of the pitch motion in the vertical motion of the edges of the TLP in some period ranges.
The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.
Offshore jacket-type platforms are attached to the seabed by long batter piles. In this paper, results from a finite element analysis, verified against experimental data, are used to study the effect of the pile’s inclination angle, and its interaction with the geometrical properties of the pile and the geotechnical characteristics of the surrounding soil on the behavior of the inclined piles supporting the jacket platforms. Results show that the inclination angle is one of the main parameters affecting the behavior of an offshore pile. We investigated the effect of the inclination angle on the maximum von Mises stress, maximum von Mises elastic strain, maximum displacement vector sum, maximum displacement in the horizontal direction, and maximum displacement in the vertical direction. Results indicate that the pile’s operationally optimal degree of inclination is approximately 5°. By exceeding this value, the instability in the surrounding soil under applied loads grows extensively in all the geotechnical properties considered. Cohesive soils tend to display poorer results compared to grained soils.
Separation of the components of rigid acoustic scattering by underwater objects is essential in obtaining the structural characteristics of such objects. To overcome the problem of rigid structures appearing to have the same spectral structure in the time domain, time-frequency Blind Source Separation (BSS) can be used in combination with image morphology to separate the rigid scattering components of different objects. Based on a highlight model, the separation of the rigid scattering structure of objects with time-frequency distribution is deduced. Using a morphological filter, different characteristics in a Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) observed for single auto term and cross terms can be simplified to remove any cross-term interference. By selecting time and frequency points of the auto terms signal, the accuracy of BSS can be improved. A simulation experimental has been used to analyze the feasibility of the new method, with changing the pulse width of the transmitted signal, the relative amplitude and the time delay parameter. And simulation results show that the new method can not only separate rigid scattering components, but can also separate the components when elastic scattering and rigid scattering exist at the same time. Experimental results confirm that the new method can be used in separating the rigid scattering structure of underwater objects.
In this paper, the effects of zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) addition on the performance of an aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater were investigated using a potential measurement method. Anodic efficiency, protection efficiency, and polarized potential were the parameters used. The percentages of Zn and Mg in the anodes were varied from 2% to 8% Zn and 1% to 4% Mg. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anodes for the protection of mild steel in seawater at room temperature. Current efficiency as high as 88.36% was obtained in alloys containing 6% Zn and 1% Mg. The polarization potentials obtained for the coupled (steel/Al-based alloys) are as given in the Pourbaix diagrams, with steel lying within the immunity region/cathodic region and the sacrificial anodes within the anodic region. The protection offered by the sacrificial anodes to the steel after the 7th and 8th week was measured and protection efficiency values as high as 99.66% and 99.47% were achieved for the Al-6%Zn-1%Mg cast anode. The microstructures of the cast anodes comprise of intermetallic structures of hexagonal Mg3Zn2 and body-centered cubic Al2Mg3Zn3. These are probably responsible for the breakdown of the passive alumina film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.
Fishing is a major local industry in Malaysia, particularly in rural areas. However, the rapidly increasing price of fuel is seriously affecting the industry’s viability. At present, outboard petrol engines are the preferred choice for use in small-scale fishing boats because they deliver the advantages of high speed and low weight, they are easy to install, and they use minimal space. Petrol outboard engines are known to consume a greater amount of fuel than inboard diesel engines, but installing diesel engines with conventional submerged propellers in existing small-scale fishing boats is not economically viable because major hullform modifications and extra expenditure are required to achieve this. This study describes a proposal to enable reductions in fuel consumption by introducing the combined use of a diesel engine and Surface-Piercing Propeller (SPP). An analysis of fuel consumption reduction is presented, together with an economic feasibility study. Resulting data reveal that the use of the proposed modifications would save 23.31 liters of fuel per trip (40.75%) compared to outboard motors, equaling annual savings of RM 3962 per year.