Call for Papers—Special Issue on Demanding Maritime Operation
When designing an arctic cargo ship, it is necessary to consider multiple stochastic factors. This paper evaluates the merits of a simulation-based probabilistic design method specifically developed to deal with this challenge. The outcome of the paper indicates that the incorporation of simulations and probabilistic design parameters into the design process enables more informed design decisions. For instance, it enables the assessment of the stochastic transport capacity of an arctic ship, as well as of its long-term ice exposure that can be used to determine an appropriate level of ice-strengthening. The outcome of the paper also indicates that significant gains in transport system cost-efficiency can be obtained by extending the boundaries of the design task beyond the individual vessel. In the case of industrial shipping, this allows for instance the consideration of port-based cargo storage facilities allowing for temporary shortages in transport capacity and thus a reduction in the required fleet size / ship capacity.
To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the ‘Tsai-Wu’ yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of icebergs. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.
Ice-induced structural vibration generally decreases with an increase in structural width at the waterline. Definitions of wide/narrow ice-resistant conical structures, according to ice-induced vibration, are directly related to structure width, sea ice parameters, and clearing modes of broken ice. This paper proposes three clearing modes for broken ice acting on conical structures: complete clearing, temporary ice pile up, and ice pile up. In this paper, sea ice clearing modes and the formation requirements of dynamic ice force are analyzed to explore criteria determining wide/narrow ice-resistant conical structures. According to the direct measurement data of typical prototype structures, quantitative criteria of the ratio of a cone width at waterline (D) to sea ice thickness (h) is proposed. If the ratio is less than 30 (narrow conical structure), broken ice is completely cleared and a dynamic ice force is produced; however, if the ratio is larger than 50 (wide conical structure), the front stacking of broken ice or dynamic ice force will not occur.
A set of experiments is carried out in a towing tank to study the effects of the curvature of perforated plates on the wave reflection coefficient (Cr). The curvature of a perforated plate can be changed by rotating a reference perforated plate about its origin point according to the parabolic equation y=-x2. A plunger-type wave maker is used to generate regular waves. The reflection coefficients are calculated using Goda and Suzuki’s (1976) method. The results are compared with those of vertical or sloped passive wave absorbers. The comparison shows that a perforated plate with a curved profile is highly efficient in terms of reducing the wave reflection coefficient. A correlation is established to estimate the reflection coefficient of curved perforated plates as a function of both flow and geometry characteristics.
Seven adjustments of convergent-type Vortex Tube (VT) with different throttle angles were applied. The adjustments were made to analyze the influences of such angles on cold and hot temperature drops as well as flow structures inside the VTs. An experimental setup was designed, and tests were performed on different convergent VT configurations at injection pressures ranging from 0.45 to 0.65 MPa. The angles of the throttle valve were arranged between 30° to 90°, and the numbers of injection nozzles ranged between 2 and 6. Laboratory results indicated that the maximum hot and cold temperature drops ranged from 23.24 to 35 K and from 22.87 to 32.88 K, respectively, at four injection nozzles. Results also showed that temperature drop is a function of hot throttle valve angle with the maximum hot and cold temperature drops depending on the angle applied. We used graphs to demonstrate the changes in the cold and hot temperature drops with respect to hot throttle angle values. These values were interpreted and evaluated to determine the optimum angle, which was 60°. The CFD outputs agreed very well with the laboratory results. The proposed CFD results can help future researchers gain good insights into the complicated separation process taking place inside the VTs.
In this feasibility study, we investigate the viability of using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel in an open type Ro-Ro passenger ferry and the associated potential challenges with regard to the vessel safety systems. We recommend an appropriate methodology for converting existing ships to run on LNG fuel, discuss all the necessary modifications to the ship’s safety systems, and also evaluate the relevant ship evacuation procedures. We outline the basic requirements with which the ship already complies for each safety system and analyze the additional restrictions that must be taken into consideration for the use of LNG fuel. Appropriate actions are recommended. Furthermore, we carry out a hazard identification study. Overall, we clearly demonstrate the technical feasibility of the investigated scenario. Minimal modifications to the ship’s safety systems are required to comply with existing safety rules for this specific type of ship.
In this paper, Neural Networks (NNs) are used in the modeling of ship maneuvering motion. A nonlinear response model and a linear hydrodynamic model of ship maneuvering motion are also investigated. The maneuverability indices and linear non-dimensional hydrodynamic derivatives in the models are identified by using two-layer feed forward NNs. The stability of parametric estimation is confirmed. Then, the ship maneuvering motion is predicted based on the obtained models. A comparison between the predicted results and the model test results demonstrates the validity of the proposed modeling method.
Recent progress in calculating gas bubble sizes in a plume, based on phenomenological approaches using the release conditions is a significant improvement to make the gas plume models self-reliant. Such calculations require details of conditions Near the Source of Plume (NSP); (i.e. the plume/jet velocity and radius near the source), which inspired the present work. Determining NSP conditions for gas plumes are far more complex than that for oil plumes due to the substantial density difference between gas and water. To calculate NSP conditions, modeling the early stage of the plume is important. A novel method of modeling the early stage of an underwater gas release is presented here. Major impact of the present work is to define the correct NSP conditions for underwater gas releases, which is not possible with available methods as those techniques are not based on the physics of flow region near the source of the plume/jet. We introduce super Gaussian profiles to model the density and velocity variations of the early stages of plume, coupled with the laws of fluid mechanics to define profile parameters. This new approach, models the velocity profile variation from near uniform, across the section at the release point to Gaussian some distance away. The comparisons show that experimental data agrees well with the computations.
The authors previously introduced a semi-empirical formula that enabled fast estimation of the added resistance of ships in head waves, and in this study the formula is further refined for easy use in engineering applications. It includes an alternative ship draft correction coefficient, which better accounts for the wave pressure decay with ship’s draft. In addition, it only uses the speed and main characteristics of the ship and wave environment as input, and has been simplified to the extent that it can be readily processed using a pocket calculator. Extensive validations are conducted for different ship types at low to moderate speeds in various typical irregular sea conditions, and encouraging results are obtained. This relevant and topical research lies within the framework of the recent IMO MEPC.232(65) (2013) EEDI guidelines for estimating the minimum powering of ships in adverse weather conditions, which specify for the use of simple methods in current Level 2 assessment within engineering applications.
This paper focuses on the problem of control law optimization for marine vessels working in a dynamical positioning (DP) regime. The approach proposed here is based on the use of a special unified multipurpose control law structure constructed on the basis of nonlinear asymptotic observers, that allows the decoupling of a synthesis into simpler particular optimization problems. The primary reason for the observers is to restore deficient information concerning the unmeasured velocities of the vessel. Using a number of separate items in addition to the observers, it is possible to achieve desirable dynamical features of the closed loop connection. The most important feature is the so-called dynamical corrector, and this paper is therefore devoted to solving its optimal synthesis in marine vessels controlled by DP systems under the action of sea wave disturbances. The problem involves the need for minimal intensity of the control action determined by high frequency sea wave components. A specialized approach for designing the dynamical corrector is proposed and the applicability and effectiveness of the approach are illustrated using a practical example of underwater DP system synthesis.
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are capable of conducting various underwater missions and marine tasks over long periods of time. In this study, a novel conflict-free motion-planning framework is introduced. This framework enhances AUV mission performance by completing the maximum number of highest priority tasks in a limited time through a large-scale waypoint cluttered operating field and ensuring safe deployment during the mission. The proposed combinatorial route-path-planner model takes advantage of the Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) algorithm to satisfy the objectives of both higher- and lower-level motion planners and guarantee the maximization of mission productivity for a single vehicle operation. The performance of the model is investigated under different scenarios, including cost constraints in time-varying operating fields. To demonstrate the reliability of the proposed model, the performance of each motion planner is separately assessed and statistical analysis is conducted to evaluate the total performance of the entire model. The simulation results indicate the stability of the proposed model and the feasibility of its application to real-time experiments.
The structure of a counter-rotating turbine of an underwater vehicle is designed by adding the counter-rotating second-stage turbine disk to the conventional single-stage turbine. The available kinetic energy and the absorption power of the auxiliary system are calculated at different working conditions, and the results show that the power of the main engine and auxiliary system at the counter-rotating turbine system matches well with each other. The technology scheme of the counter-rotating turbine system is proposed, then the experimental simulation of the lubricating oil loop, fuel loop, and seawater loop is completed. The simulation results indicate that the hydraulic transmission system can satisfy the requirements for an underwater vehicle running at a steady sailing or variable working conditions.
Successful co-deposition of fine particulate matter within an Electroless Nickel-Phosphorous (ENi-P) matrix is dependent on various factors like bath composition, particle compatibility with metallic matrix, bath reactivity (pH), particle size and their distribution. ENi-P deposits incorporating Al2O3/ Alumina in a disperse phase have varied effects on properties and attributes like surface roughness (Ra), microhardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance and surface morphology of the deposits obtained. This paper experimentally investigates the effect of alumina (1.55 g/L) on Ra, microhardness, surface morphology, deposition rate, wettability, wear resistance and corrosion resistance of ENi-P-Al2O3 composite deposits on mild steel substrates at bath pH 5, 7 and 9. Study reveals that optimum deposit parameters and deposition rates are achieved with bath pH. However, not much study has been undertaken concerning composite deposits obtained from higher bath pH or basic bath. This is attributable to the fact that at higher bath pH or alkaline baths, the bath gets unstable and eventually degrades or decomposes, thereby resulting in sub optimal or poor deposition. Hence, experimental investigations carried out by preparing suitable baths, operating under optimum conditions, and enabling successful composite deposition in acidic and alkaline baths have revealed that there is a significant improvement in the above mentioned properties of the as-deposited composite deposits, as the pH is increased from pH 5 to pH 9. This aspect can therefore be advantageously utilized for preparing various marine components like fasteners, nuts, bolts, washers, pipes, cables, components having relative motion etc.